Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 30-36
Economic Impact of Violence Against Women in Senegal: Estimation of Costs of Productivity Losses
Mamadou Makhtar Mbacké Leye, Department Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal
Ibrahima Seck, Department Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal
Anta Tal Dia, Department Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal
Received: Feb. 21, 2020;       Accepted: Mar. 25, 2020;       Published: Apr. 14, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.wjph.20200502.11      View  463      Downloads  169
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyse the costs of productivity losses of violence against women in Senegal. The costs of lost productivity were calculated from the database derived from the epidemiological survey at the level of Senegal's courts. The basis of the epidemiological survey allowed the information to calculate the costs. These costs include lost pay and time for those considered to be victims, but also for perpetrators. The human capital approach was used. The total costs of productivity losses were estimated 105,792 € for the victims and 2,926,543 € for the perpetrators. The costs of lost productivity of the perpetrators who committed sexual violence were estimated 1,868,499 € or 64% of the total costs. The costs related to productivity losses for both victims and perpetrators in regards to murders and rapes accounted for the following percentage of the total costs 49.6% and 52.6%, respectively. Depending on the types of sectors and violence, the average costs of productivity losses were statistically higher among the perpetrators compared to the victims (p<0.05). This study highlights the high costs of violence borne by society. An analysis of direct costs would have provided a better understanding of the economic burden of this violence.
Keywords
Prevention, Cost, Productivity, Violence, Woman, SENEGAL
To cite this article
Mamadou Makhtar Mbacké Leye, Ibrahima Seck, Anta Tal Dia, Economic Impact of Violence Against Women in Senegal: Estimation of Costs of Productivity Losses, World Journal of Public Health. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2020, pp. 30-36. doi: 10.11648/j.wjph.20200502.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Anderson JC, Stockman JK, Sabri B, Campbell DW, Campbell JC. Injury outcomes in african american and african Caribbean women: the role of intimate partner violence. J Emerg Nurs. 2015; 41 (1): 36-42.
[2]
Arnetz JE, Arnetz BB. Violence towards health care staff and possible effects on the quality of patient care. Soc Sci Med, 2001; 52 (3): 417-27.
[3]
Bah H, Abatty OC, Baw A, Soumah MT. Domestic violence in Conakry. J Med Leg Law Med, 2008; 51 (4-5): 221-225.
[4]
Direction of Forecasting and Statistics. Employment, unemployment and conditions of activity in the agglomeration of Dakar. Report of phase 1 of the 1-2-3 survey of 2002. Dakar: DFS. 2004.
[5]
Drummond MF, Sculpher MJ. Torrance GW. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes, Oxford University Press. 2005.
[6]
Greenberg PE, Kessler R, Birnbaum HG, Leong SA, Lowe SW, Berglund PA, Corey-Lisle PK. The economic burden of depression in the United States: how did it change between 1990 and 2000? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2003; 64: 1465-75.
[7]
Greenberg PE, Leong SA, Birnbaum HG, Robinson RL. The economic burden of depression with painful symptoms. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003; 64 Suppl 7: 17-23.
[8]
Grill S, Blanc A, Dedouit F, Rouge D, Telmon N. Evaluation of the quality of the drafting of descriptive certificates of the findings of Coups and Injuries volants within a medico-judicial unit. J Med Leg Droit Med, 2006; 49 (5): 166-172.
[9]
Heiskanen M. The costs of violence in a municipality. A case study of violence against women and itse costs in the city of Hämeenlinna 2001, based on estimates provided by authority representatives. Sosiaali-ja terveysministeriö. 2002.
[10]
Ho-Foster A, Laetsang D, Masisi M, Anderson M, Tlhoiwe D, Cockcroft A, Andersson N. Gender-specific patterns of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships: a national cross sectional survey in Botswana. AIDS Care, 2010; 22 (8): 1006-11.
[11]
Huck A, Delbreil A, Gaudin A, Blanchard M, Chailloux C, Rougé-Maillart C. Determination of total incapacity for work during psychological disorders: criteria and methods. Journal of Legal Medicine, 2017; 8 (3): 105-115.
[12]
International Labor Office. Decent Work Country Profile Senegal. Geneva: ILO; 2013; 49 p.
[13]
Jacquemot P. Mineral resources, weapons and violence in the Kivus (DRC). Herodotus, 2009; 134 (3): 38-62.
[14]
Kjaerulf F, Lee B, Cohen L, Donnelly P, Turner S, Davis R, Realini A, Moloney M.-K, Gordon R, Lee G, Gilligan J. The 2030 agenda for sustainable development: a golden opportunity for global violence prevention. International Journal of Public Health, 2016; 61, 8: 863–864.
[15]
Leye, MMM, Faye A, Wone I, Diedhiou D, Diongue M, Niang K, Seck I, Ndiaye P, Tal Dia A. Etude des determinants de viols chez les mineurs dans la region de Kolda au Senegal. Sante Publique, 2014; 26, 131-138.
[16]
Ministry of Labour, Social Dialogue, Professional Organisations and Relations with Institutions. Minister Decree No. 01418 dated 02 February 2015 approving the amendment of Article 6 of the Statutes of the Pension Provident Institution of Senegal. 2015.
[17]
Mitchell C. The health impact of intimate partner violence. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2004; 32 (5): 396-8.
[18]
National Agency of Statistics and Demography. National Survey of the Informal Sector in Senegal (ENSIS 2010). Dakar: NASD; 2013; 64 p.
[19]
Nectoux M, Mugnier C, Baffert S, Albagly M, Thélot Bertrand. Economic evaluation of domestic violence in France. Public Health, 2010, 4 (22): 405-416.
[20]
Niang CI, Diop N, Diop ML, Sow S, Gueye M A et al. Final report of the situational study on gender-based violence in the regions of Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Louga, St. Louis, Thies. UNFEMMES-Senegal. 2012; 85 p.
[21]
Peterson C, DeGue S, Florence C, Lokey CN. Lifetime Economic Burden of Rape Among U.S. Adults. Am J Prev Med, 2017; 52 (6): 691-701.
[22]
Peterson C, Kearns MC, McIntosh WL, Estefan LF, Nicolaidis C, McCollister KE, Gordon A, Florence C. Lifetime Economic Burden of Intimate Partner Violence Among U.S. Adults. Am J Prev Med; 2018; 55 (4): 433-444.
[23]
Pulkkinen P. The price of violence. The costs of men’s violence against women in Finland. Statistics finland. Workingpaper 30. 2004.
[24]
Selke B, Durand I, Marissal JP, Chevalier D, Lebrun T. Cost of colorectal cancer in France in 1999. Gastroenterol Clin Biol, 2003; 27 (1): 22-7.
[25]
Semahegn A, Mengistie B. Domestic violence against women and associated factors in Ethiopia; systematic review. Reprod Health, 2015 12: 78.
[26]
Senior M, Fazel S, Tsiachristas A. The economic impact of violence perpetration in severe mental illness: a retrospective, prevalence-based analysis in England and Wales. Lancet Public Health. 2020 Feb; 5 (2): e99-e106.
[27]
Soumah MM, Ngwa HE, Ndiaye M, Sow ML. Quality of certificates of voluntary assault on adults in Dakar and Diourbel. Pan African Médical Journal, 2011; 12: 59.
[28]
Steyn TP, Gebremariam FA. Cost analysis of violence-related medical imaging in a Free State tertiary trauma unit. SA J Radiol. 2019 Jan 8; 23 (1): 1664.
[29]
Tournyol du Clos L, Le Jeannic T. Violence against women. Paris: The national institute of statistics and economic studies, 2008, n°1180: 4 p.
[30]
Waters H, Hyder A, Rajkotia Y, Basu S, Rehwinkel JA, Butchart A. The economic dimensions of interpersonal violence. Department of Injuries and Violence Prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2004.
[31]
Willem A, Olivier T. Gender equality as a factor of economic growth: what can policies? Geoeconomics, 2016; no 2, 141-163.
[32]
Yang J, Miller TR, Zhang N, LeHew B, Peek-Asa C. Incidence and cost of sexual violence in Iowa. Am J Prev Med, 2014; 47 (2): 198-202.
Browse journals by subject